“My Blog doesn't show up even though I have posts with FEATURED IMAGES created. What to do?”
Please go to Reading -> Settings and make sure that first option "Front Page Displays" is set correctly. If it is set to "A static page" make sure that "Posts Page" is NOT set to Your blog or any other page. Just leave it default ( it will display -- SELECT -- label ) - it has to be like this. This setting doesn't control anything ( all settings are controlled via page builder modules ) and if set to any page causes wierd behavior - not displaying blog or portfolio posts etc... even though everything is setup correctly.
Long story short:
Reading -> Settings -> "Front Page Displays" -> "A static page" -> "Posts Page" -> Just leave it default ( it will display -- SELECT -- label )